Glossary of Relevant Bodybuilding Terms - cont...

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On MuscleTalk there are a number of complex words, scientific terms and jargon and acronyms used in reference to bodybuilding, health and fitness. This section will help you define and understand the main ones. It is by no means finite and more will be added. If you have any words / terms you'd like explaining then please suggest them...

For information about technical terms relating to muscle and bone, see here.

Eccentric: This represents the negative portion of a repetition i.e. lowering the weight.

Efficacious: Means producing the desired effect, i.e. it works.

Electrolyte: Substance in solution which is capable of conducting electricity. These charged particles are present throughout the body and are involved in many activities such as regulating the distribution of water inside and outside cells in the body. Examples include potassium, sodium and chloride.

Elemental Nutrition: This is nutrition made up solely of simplest units of nutrition, i.e. amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals.

Empirical Data: Information based on observation and experience, not scientific reasoning, also known as anecdotal evidence. Empirical data is not accepted as scientifically sound.

Endogenous: Refers to things that occur naturally in the body, i.e. something which your body produces naturally.

End Product: The resultant compound formed from a chemical process.

Energy: The capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy: it can be converted to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy. Energy is sometimes measured in calories (kcal) or kilojoules (kJ).

Enzyme: A protein molecule that acts as a catalyst in thousands of chemical reactions in the body, including digestion of food, metabolism, hormone production and muscle cell repair.

Epidemiological Evidence: Studies on the effects of substrates on populations or groups of people. There are different types including retrospective, prospective, case-controlled, etc. Strength of evidence depends on study design.

EPOC: Excess post exercise oxygen consumption. Refers to the status of increased metabolism (oxygen consumption) following resistance exercise or high intensity cardiovascular exercise. This state seems to be achieved through extended, intermittent anaerobic exercise.

Ergogenic: Refers to something that can increase muscular work capacity, i.e. performance-enhancing. Natural supplements that can increase some aspect of athletic performance are said to be erogenic aids.

Essential Fatty Acid (EFA): Fat that our bodies cannot synthesis, so we must obtain through diet. See more

Exogenous: Refers to things originating outside of the body, i.e. something we ingest orally, inhale or inject.

Experimental Evidence: Labroraty-based studies, which show the direct effect of administering a substance on a subject. Experimental studies provide a plausible theory from which other studies can follow.

Fat: Body fat (adipose tissue) or dietary fat. Fat is a group of organic compounds including triglycerides, sterols and steroids, more correctly know as lipid.

Fat-Free Mass (FFM): Refers to all other portions of the body other than fat. Also referred to as lean body mass (LBM).

Fatigue: A condition resulting from when the rate of energy re-synthesis cannot keep pace with energy utilisation, and physiological and metabolic processes are impaired.

Fat-Mass (FM): Refers to the amount of fat in body composition.

Fatty Acids: The simplest units of fat that vary in chain length and saturation.

Fibre: See Dietary Fibre

Flat: Describes muscles that have lost their fullness, commonly caused by over training, under training, during a cutting phase or from a lack of nutrients, muscle glycogen and water.

Flush: To increase the blood supply to a muscle, thereby bringing in more nutrients.

Free Hand Movement: Any exercise that can be performed without exercise equipment, using only your bodyweight i.e.; a push-up or squat without weight.

Forced Reps: Additional repetitions of an exercise performed with the help of a partner when you are unable to do anymore repetitions yourself.

Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules possessing unpaired electrons that are produced during metabolism of food and energy and contribute to the molecular damage and death of vital body cells. Free radicals may be a factor in ageing and many diseases and may ultimately contribute to death.

Free Form Amino Acids: Structurally unlinked, individual amino acids freely present in tissues or blood.

Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS): A type of soluble fibre that acts as a prebiotic, found in many foods especially fruit.

Fructose: The main monosaccharide found in fruit.

Fuel: The chemical substance from which energy is derived.

Full Spectrum Amino Acids: Supplements that contain a combination of all of all amino acids present in protein synthesis.

Functional Foods: These are foods that have no nutritional value per se, but have been developed through research and have a function in good health. Also known as nutraceuticals.

Gakic: Glycine-l-arginine-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid – supplement formula which may help to delay the onset of fattigue

Glucagon: A hormone responsible for helping maintain proper blood sugar levels. It is secreted in response to a fall in blood sugar levels, and activates glucose production in the liver and regulates the release of glycogen from muscle cells.

Glucose: The simplest sugar molecule, and is the most frequently occurring monosaccharide in the diet. It is the main sugar found in blood and is used as a basic fuel for the body.

Glutes: A shortened version of gluteus maximus, the largest of the muscles forming each of the buttocks. Your ass.

Glycaemic Index (GI): A measure of the extent to which a food raises the blood sugar (glucose) level as compared with other carbohydrates, particularly glucose.

Glycaemic Response (GR): The speed and level of blood sugar increase after eating food.

Glycogen: A polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in animal cells, in liver and muscle cells.

Glycolysis: The breakdown of carbohydrate into smaller compounds into ATP and substrates that may enter the Krebs cycle.

Growth Hormone (GH): A hormone is released by the pituitary gland. GH is the principle hormone controlling growth. It promotes muscle growth and the breakdown of body fat for energy. GH levels are high in children and in teens but diminish greatly after age 20.

Guarana: Herb available as a supplement formula as a source of caffeine.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL): A sub-category of cholesterol in our blood, typically thought of as 'good' cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is the form that is typically used to clear fats from the system.

HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training): CV exercise regimen involving intervals of rapid exercise, within a period of low intensity. Designed to help both fat loss and fitness.

Hormone: A chemicals which regulates various biological processes through its ability to activate or deactivate enzymes. Hormones can be made of proteins (e.g. insulin, growth hormone) or lipid (e.g. testosterone, cortisol).

Hydration: The restitution or normal fluid reserves.

Hydrolysis: A chemical reaction where water reacts with a substance to change it into another substance or substances.

Hyperglycaemia: High blood glucose level, in a normal individual above 6 mmol per litre of blood.

Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells if a tissue, thus increasing its size.

Hypertonic: A fluid where the osmotic pressure is greater than that of what it is being compared to, in this case, normal body fluids.

Hypertrophy: When cells increase in size. For example, muscular hypertrophy is the increase in size of the muscle cells.

Hypoglycaemia: Low blood glucose level, below 3mmol per litre of blood. The effects of a hypoglycaemic attack include anxiety, fatigue, perspiration, delirium, and in severe cases, coma.

Hypotonic: A fluid where the osmotic pressure is less than that of what it is being compared to, in this case, normal body fluids.