Glossary of Relevant Terms - cont...

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On MuscleTalk there are a number of complex words, scientific terms and jargon and acronyms used in reference to bodybuilding, health and fitness. This section will help you define and understand the main ones. It is by no means finite and more will be added. If you have any words / terms you'd like explaining then please suggest them...

For information about technical terms relating to muscle and bone, see here.

Saturated Fats: These are bad dietary fats. They are called saturated because they contain no open spots on their chain. They have been shown to raise cholesterol levels in the body, as a percentage of total fat intake.

Semi-Elemental Nutrition: This is nutrition of partially digested nutrients, including amino acids and oligopeptides, mono- and oligosaccharides, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals.

Set: A unit of exercise measurement consisting of a movement that is repeated a desired number of times.

Shredded: To get ripped, to have extremely low body fat with superior muscle separation. Also sliced, cut and striated.

Spotting: Standing by, alert and ready to assist promptly if called upon by someone performing an exercise.

Stacking: Refers to taking two or more compounds at once in an attempt to maximise results.

Starch: A storage polysaccharide in plants and the only one digestible by humans.

Sublingual: Means to ingest something beneath the tongue.

Substrates: Chemical substances or compounds changed in an enzyme-controlled reaction; fuels in metabolic pathways.

Sucrose: More commonly known as table sugar and is derived from sugar cane or beet. It is a disaccharide of fructose and glucose. Eating sucrose elicits a rapid insulin response.

Supplement: A term used to describe a preparation that has nutritional value of contains a 'natural' substance reported to have health benefits with little or no side effects. Supplements are used as part of a person's diet to supply adequate or optimum levels of a nutrient, anutrient or nutraceutical.

Synergistic Effect: Refers to the outcome when things a number of substances work in unison with one another, and the overall effect is greater than the sum of each substance used on its own. One compound could enhance or multiply the effectiveness of another compound. For example B-vitamins; creatine plus carbohydrates; the ephedrine / caffeine / aspirin (eca) stack.

Synthesis: The formation of a new product from other compounds.

Tabata Training: Unique style of exercise involving periods of work and rest. More here

Testes: The male reproductive organs. A pair of endocrine organs found in males that secrete the hormones that regulate male characteristics, mainly testosterone.

Testosterone: An androgenic / anabolic hormone produced primarily by the testes, responsible for male characteristics including muscle anabolism.

Taurine: 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid - a derivative of the sulphur containing amino acid cysteine. As a supplement it's been shown to reduce fatigue, increase exercise capacity, aid thermoregulation and improve concentration.

Thermogenic: Refers to something that causes heat production. Taking a thermogenic agent will speed up the metabolism, raise core body temperature, and accelerate fat mobilisation.

Trace Elements: Minerals essential to the body but only in minute amounts, e.g. selenium, copper.

Triglyceride / Triacyleglycerol (TG): The scientific name for common dietary fat. TGs consist of a backbone of glycerol connected to three fatty acids. Triglycerides are also called fats or lipids.

Tripeptides: Protein fragments of three amino acids in length.

Turnover Rate: The rate of collective processes of synthesis and degradation of a compound or group of compounds.

Unsaturated Fats: These lack one or more carbons, and are divided into polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.

Up-regulate: Means to increase. For example, creatine monohydrate appears to have the ability to up-regulate muscle's ability to replenish energy stores.

Vascular: The visibility of veins on a bodybuilder as a result of exercise and low body fat (and perhaps higher blood volume).

Vitamins: These micronutrients are organic compounds that are vital to life. Many vitamins function as coenzymes, supporting a multitude of biological and biochemical functions.

VLCD (Very low calorie diet): Commercial supplement formula regimen designed to promote rapid weight loss.

VO2 Max: This is the maximum volume of oxygen an individual can consume per unit of work. It is used as a measure of an athlete's cardiovascular efficiency and performance capacity.